[2024-Vol.21-Issue 3]Design Improvements and Validation of a Novel Fully 3D Printed Analogue Lumbar Spine Motion Segment
发布时间: 2024-05-30 10:27  点击:81

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2024) 21:1388–1396 

Design Improvements and Validation of a Novel Fully 3D Printed Analogue Lumbar Spine Motion Segment

Siril Teja Dukkipati1,2  · Mark Driscoll1,2

1 Musculoskeletal Biomechanics Research Lab, Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, 845 Sherbrooke St. W (163), Montréal, QC H3A 0C3, Canada

2 Orthopaedic Research Lab, Montreal General Hospital, 1650  Cedar Ave (LS1.409), Montréal, QC H3G 1A4, Canada


Spine biomechanical testing methods in the past few decades have not evolved beyond employing either cadaveric studies or ffnite element modeling techniques. However, both these approaches may have inherent cost and time limitations. Cadaveric studies are the present gold standard for spinal implant design and regulatory approval, but they introduce signiffcant variability in measurements across patients, often requiring large sample sizes. Finite element modeling demands considerable expertise and can be computationally expensive when complex geometry and material nonlinearity are introduced. Validated analogue spine models could complement these traditional methods as a low-cost and high-ffdelity alternative. A fully 3D printable L-S1 analogue spine model with ligaments is developed and validated in this research. Rotational stiffness of the model under pure bending loading in ffexion-extension, Lateral Bending (LB) and Axial Rotation (AR) is evaluated and compared against historical ex vivo and in silico models. Additionally, the effect of interspinous, intertransverse ligaments and the Thoracolumbar Fascia (TLF) on spinal stiffness is evaluated by systematic construction of the model. In ffexion, model Range of Motion (ROM) was 12.92 ± 0.11° (ex vivo: 16.58°, in silico: 12.96°) at 7.5Nm. In LB, average ROM was 13.67 ± 0.12° at 7.5 Nm (ex vivo: 15.21 ± 1.89°, in silico: 15.49 ± 0.23°). Similarly, in AR, average ROM was 17.69 ± 2.12° at 7.5Nm (ex vivo: 14.12 ± 0.31°, in silico: 15.91 ± 0.28°). The addition of interspinous and intertransverse ligaments increased both ffexion and LB stiffnesses by approximately 5%. Addition of TLF showed increase in ffexion and AR stiffnesses by 29% and 24%, respectively. This novel model can reproduce physiological ROMs with high repeatability and could be a useful open-source tool in spine biomechanics.

Keywords Lumbar spine · 3D printing · Intervertebral disc · Biomechanical testing · Spine mechanics


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