Journal of Bionic Engineering (2022) 19:590–615 https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-022-00159-3
Bionic MEMS for Touching and Hearing Sensations: Recent Progress, Challenges, and Solutions
Chang Ge1 · Edmond Cretu1
1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
Abstract This paper reviews the recent progress on bionic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) used for touching and hearing sensations, focusing on the following three types of devices: MEMS tactile sensors, MEMS directional microphones, and MEMS vector hydrophones. After reviewing the electromechanical coupling principles, design, and performance of these MEMS devices, the authors conclude that it is vital for future research eforts in bionic MEMS to focus more on microfabrication technologies. The development of robust microfabrication fows is the basis to implement hybrid electromechanical coupling principles based on novel functional materials. High-quality polymeric micromachining technologies can also signifcantly enhance the potential of existing bionic MEMS designs for more practical applications.
Keywords Bionic MEMS · Tactile sensor · Directional microphone · Vector hydrophone · Polymeric micromachining · PDMS · SU-8
Possible motions to induce capacitance variation for electromechanical coupling