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[2022-Vol.19-Issue 3]Target-oriented Passive Localization Techniques Inspired by Terrestrial Arthropods: A Review
Post: 2022-05-20 11:32  View:164

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2022) 19:571–589  https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-022-00157-5 

Target-oriented Passive Localization Techniques Inspired by Terrestrial Arthropods: A Review 

Fu Liu1  · Yueqiao Wang1  · Yufeng Zhao1  · Meihe Liu1  · Tao Hou1  · Zhiwu Han2

1 College of Communication Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China
2 Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China 

Abstract  For centuries, researchers have been fascinated by how simple-minded arthropods pick up defnite cues and locate a potential target in an instant. Contrary to the active echolocation of classical creatures, arthropods exhibit passive characteristics. They use spatially separated sensilla to cooperatively pinpoint target-generated signal sources such as sound, light, ground vibration, air disturbance, and thermal radiation. The paper introduces the localization mechanisms of typical terrestrial arthropods with diverse survival habits. Focusing on these special mechanisms, a series of theoretical models and advanced bionic equipment have been reviewed, and some key challenges and future directions are proposed. We believe that intensive study on arthropods can promote innovative development of miniaturized, low power-dissipation, and high-performance localization equipment, thereby enhancing and expanding current localization techniques. 

Keywords  Target-oriented localization · Passive techniques · Terrestrial arthropods · Bioinspiration

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The biological prototype, localization mechanism, and biomimetic devices of sound source localization. a Parasitoid fly. b Schematics of the fly ear structure. c The “rocking” and “bending” vibration modes of the fly ear (left), and its lumped parameter model (right) [27] (Copyright from the Scientific Reports 2013). d The bio-inspired differential microphone: (i) photograph and the mask design of the top surface of the microphone diaphragm (above) and the predicted mode shapes of the first two resonant modes of the diaphragm (below); (ii) schematic of the differential microphone diaphragm; (iii) comparison of the measured diaphragm directivity pattern and an ideal differential microphone [36] (Copyright from the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 2009). e The design of the optical fiber based bio-inspired sensor: (i) the cross-sectional view of the biomimetic sensor, and low-coherence fiber optic interferometer that detects membrane vibration (above), and the full view of the assembled prototype shown next to a match (below); (ii) two vibration modes of the sensor obtained with a laser scanning vibrometer (left), and the characterization of the sensor: Mechanical Interaural Phase Difference (MIPD) as the function of the frequency and incident azimuth (right); (iii) MIPD as the function of azimuth angle at optimal working frequency: comparison between experimental results (circles) and simulation results (solid lines); (iv) example of the bio-inspired localization-laterlization scheme [27] (copyright from the Scientific Reports 2013). f Bio-inspired two-dimensional sound source localization sensor: (i) schematic of the sound localization sensor; (ii) scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the sensor and its mode shapes of the rocking mode and the bending mode; (iii) MIPD as the function of the elevation angle φ (θ?=?30°) and the azimuth angle θ (φ?=?30°) at 2 kHz, respectively [41] (copyright from the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 2011). g The MEMS microphone with two pairs of orthogonal and joined sensor membranes: (i) the sensor image taken by SEM; (ii) the microphone rocking mode shapes measured near 2.8 kHz resonance frequency; (iii) above: directional polar patterns obtained at port 1 and port 2 as the sound incidence angle φ increases from 0° to 90° in a 1/8th 3D space, and below: directional polar patterns obtained at port 1 (left) and 2 (right) as the sound incidence angle θ increases from 0° to 90° in a 1/8th 3D space [40] (Copyright from the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 2018)

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