[2021-Vol.19-Issue 4]Development of Digital Stereotaxic Instrument for Pigeons (Columba Livia)
Post: 2022-09-15 08:40  View:80

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2022) 19:1003–1013 

Development of Digital Stereotaxic Instrument for Pigeons (Columba Livia)

Xinyu Liu1,2  · Yanna Ping1,2 · Dongyun Wang1,2 · Hang Xie1,2 · Li Shi3

1 School of Intelligent Manufacturing, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian 463000, China 

2 Henan Engineering Reseacrh Center of Intelligent Human-Machine Interaction Equipment, Huanghuai University, Zhumadian 463000, China 

3 Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China 

Abstract Stereotaxic instrument is an indispensable tool for numerous types of neuroscience studies and is routinely performed in neuroscience laboratories as part of a variety of experimental procedures. Due to the development of robotics and automation, the stereotaxic instrument for rodents has made great progress, while it is relatively backward and scarce for birds. A digital stereotaxic instrument for pigeons (Columba livia), a classic animal model for learning, memory and cognition, was developed in this study. Its performance was verifed from three aspects including stereotaxic accuracy, stereotaxic stability and stereotaxic reproducibility. The developed stereotaxic instrument has the following characteristics: (1) a digital positioning system was used, which is characterized by high stereotaxic accuracy; (2) a novel head-fxation system was developed to increase the adaptability of head-fxation; (3) a four-point fxation method was suggested, improving the stability of headfxation; (4) the stereotaxic instrument has strong versatility, which can be suitable for a wide variety of birds. Moreover, the proposed stereotaxic instrument has better positioning accuracy and stability, which will promote the study of neural mechanisms for pigeons.  

Keywords Pigeons · Stereotaxic instrument · Digital positioning system · Head fxation system · Reproducibility


Head characteristics of pigeons. a Overlap of MRI pigeon brain. b Schematic of the three parameter measurement, which are distance between two ears (Dte), distance between the external auditory canals and the mouth corner (Dem), and distance between the external auditory canals and the tip of upper beak (Deb). c Distribution of the three parameters. The mean is marked by the orange circle, the street pigeon is marked by the blue dot, and the carrier pigeon is marked by the red dot. The subgraph shows the statistics from all pigeons (mean?±?standard error)

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