Journal of Bionic Engineering 19:1658–1670 (2022) https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-022-00241-w
Xiong Xiong1,2,3,4 · Yuanyuan Chen1,2,3 · Rupan Yuan3 · Gengtao Qiu4 · Michael D. Weir4 · Hockin H. K. Xu4,5,6 · Jin Liu4,7 · Jianping Ruan7 · Xiaofeng Chang7 · Shuxin Qu3
1 School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
2 Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Biomimetic Synthesis of Natural Drugs, School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
3 Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
Abstract:The utilization of Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) is limited due to its low mechanical strength and difficulty to seed cells deep into the scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a 3D-printed CPC-dopamine-metformin scaffold encapsulating human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), (2) investigate the effect of dopamine on the performance of CPC, and (3) evaluate the effect of microbead degradation and metformin release on the osteogenic differentiation of the released hPDLSCs. The mechanical property of the CPC scaffolds was elevated by adding dopamine, and the CPC scaffold with 7 wt.% dopamine had the highest compressive strength (7.35 MPa). Four types of microbeads with different content of alginate (oxidized alginate), hPDLSCs, and 2% metformin were fabricated. Morphological and cell counting kit tests confirm that the hPDLSCs are protected by microbeads encapsulation during the CPC setting process. The alkaline phosphatase test indicates that the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs was enhanced by the fast release of cells and metformin. The microbeads consisting of 2% oxidized alginate and 2% metformin were optimal for cell delivery due to favorable cell release and osteogenic differentiation. This CPC scaffold is promising used for bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial, and orthopedic applications.
Keywords: Calcium phosphate cement · 3D Printing · Bionic · Alginate microbeads · Metformin
Schematic of the fabrication procedure for mechanically strong scafolds which contain microbeads by 3D printing