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[2023-Vol.20-Issue 6]Effects of Added Mass on Muscle Activity and Joint Movement During Walking
Post: 2023-12-29 15:27  View:3030

Journal of Bionic Engineering (2023) 20:2703–2715 https://doi.org/10.1007/s42235-023-00417-y

Effects of Added Mass on Muscle Activity and Joint Movement During Walking

Yali Han1 · Frank C. Sup IV2 · Ziyang Han1 · Zhangzhang Mi1

Yali Han s966237@163.com

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167, China

2 Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA

Abstract:Added mass provided irregular interference towards human movement and shifted the force generated by lower limb muscles. However, the association between mass and muscle activities is not well recognized. Our study aims at investigating the influence of added mass on lower limbs. In our study, five young, healthy walkers performed walking trials under three load conditions (unload; C1: 0.25 pounds on feet, 1 pound on calves, and 2 pounds on thighs; C2: 1 pound on feet, 2 pounds on calves, and 4 pounds on thighs). During walking, three-dimensional kinematics, sEMG signals, and oxygen consumption were collected which allowed us to understand the effects of added mass on muscles. We also generated OpenSim simulation, designed to comprehend the relationship between added mass and muscles. With the increase of added mass, maximum sEMG signal and peak joint torque increased; whereas, the horizontal stride time reduced (unload: 1.697?±?0.02 s, C1: 1.651?±?0.02 s, C2: 1.622?±?0.02 s). Energy expenditure raised correspondingly (C1: 6.53%, C2: 24.85%). Moreover, joint moment increased, while same change occurred in muscle force. Overall, our results show that participants responded positively to additional mass by adjusting muscle activities, joint movement, and stride frequency, which demonstrates the relationship between energy consumption and added mass.

Keywords: Biomechanics · Load carriage · Gait · Muscle force

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